Important: This is a brief guide for emergency aid that can be given in the case of a heart attack or cardiac arrest before the arrival of emergency services. It is not intended as a replacement for a course in first aid or resuscitation.
What to do if someone has a heart attack?
A heart attack will cause severe pain in the chest behind the breastbone, often radiates to the left arm.
If someone has a cardiac arrest or heart attack, there may be only a few minutes to act before it is too late. It is vital to know what to do before.
to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and artificial respiration (mouth to mouth) effectively, training and frequent practice on resuscitation dummies are essential.
first aid courses are offered throughout the country at night schools or by voluntary organizations such as St John Ambulance or the British Red Cross.
How can you tell if someone is having a heart attack?
If the person is unconscious:
Are you breathing? Watch the patient’s chest to see if seesaw
have a pulse? Place two fingers on either side of the voice box of the person in your throat to feel if they have a carotid pulse.If the patient has a pulse but is not breathing:
Could it be due to suffocation? Feel the inside of the mouth with a finger to see if anything is blocking or trachea and remove any food or other objects. Provided that dentures do not break, it is better not to remove them.
immediate assistance call, indicating that the victim is not breathing, and provide fresh air (see below) until the patient starts breathing or until the ambulance arrives.
If there is no breathing or pulse, the patient has had a heart attack.
What help is needed?
Immediately place the palm of your hand on the patient just over the lower sternum (breastbone) chest and press your hand in a pumping motion once or twice by using the other hand. This can cause the heart to beat again
If these actions do not restore a pulse or if the subject does not begin to breathe again :.
call for help, indicating that the victim is having a cardiac arrest, but stay with the patient.
find out if anyone else present knows CPR.
provide artificial respiration immediately (see below).
immediately begin CPR (see below).
How CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) is performed?
See for breathing. If not, start artificial respiration as described above. Checking for a pulse in the neck (carotid artery) can be a waste of valuable time if the rescuer does not have experience in this check. The procedure is:
put your fingers in the groove between the trachea and the lateral muscles of the neck. Push back to check for a pulse
If no pulse, or if you are unsure, then proceed without delay so :.
look at the person’s chest and find the notch in the form of “inverted V” that is made by the lower edge of the rib cage. Place your middle finger in this category and then place your index beside him, resting on the sternum finger. Take the heel of your other hand and slide down the breastbone until it touches the index finger. The base of the hand should now be placed in the center of the lower half of the sternum.
Now place the heel of your other hand on top of the first. Keep your fingers off the chest, by locking them together. Your pressure should be applied through the heels of the hands only.
keep elbows straight, and bring your body weight on your hands to make it easier to press down.
press down firmly and quickly to achieve a downward motion 4 to 5 cm, then relax and repeat the compression
Do this 15 times, then give artificial respiration twice, and continue this 15: .. 2 procedure until help arrives
point to a compression rate of about 100 per minute. You can help your time and counting by saying out loud “one two and three and four …” etc.
How to Give Artificial Respiration :.
Tilt the head back and lift the chin
pinch the nostrils with two fingers to prevent air leakage
take a deep breath and seal your own mouth over the mouth of the person
Inhale slowly in the mouth of the person – .. it should take about two seconds to adequately inflate the chest.
Do this twice.
Check to see if the chest rises as you breathe into the patient.
Doing enough air it is being destroyed.
If there is resistance, try to keep your head back further and lift the chin again.
Repeat this procedure until help arrives or the person starts breathing again.
artificial respiration and CPR should be performed both at the same time
If possible, have someone else to help – a person to practice artificial respiration and the other to perform CPR. (This is not easy to do without the prior art and worth attending sessions CPR training to become familiar with the technique.)
The ratio of compressions and breaths is 30: 2 for the two one person and two-person CPR.
Continue until the ambulance arrives or the patient gets a boost and start breathing again.
If the pulse and breathing starts again but the person remains unconscious, turn gently to the side in the recovery position. This mucus or vomit so can leave the mouth and not obstruct the patient’s breathing. It also prevents the tongue to fall back and block the airway.
Make sure the patient continues breathing and has a pulse until the ambulance arrives
If you succeed in resuscitating the person who has fallen ill, he or she may be confused and alarmed by all the commotion. Keep the patient warm and calm by quietly, but clearly, telling them what has happened.
Again, it should be stressed that the only way to provide adequate first aid and resuscitation is through learning the technique, practice and then regulate and guidance.