Gut Microbiota Is Growing Focus of Multiple Sclerosis Research, Though Treatments Are Few

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intestinal microbiota is becoming an important environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis, and strategies to correct an imbalance in the intestinal flora, also known as microbial dysbiosis, is being encouraged as other possibilities to help in the management of multiple sclerosis.

Four research papers published in the last year support the idea that intestinal microbiota – the ecological community of microorganisms living in the gut -. You can play a role in the development of MS

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The first study “ patients with multiple sclerosis have a different intestinal microbiota compared with healthy controls “, published in Scientific Reports found that people with MS MS -remitting have altered the fecal microbiota and may have microbial dysbiosis. According to the team of researchers led by Dr. Ashutosh Mangalam, assistant professor of pathology at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, this could be due to factors such as stress, eating habits, too sterile environment, sunlight, smoking, or certain infections.

“These factors could lead to an increase in harmful bacteria or a decrease in beneficial bacteria,” said Mangalam Advisor Neurology. “Any of these factors – either alone or in combination – could be the reason for the altered microbiota in MS.”

Similar results were found in children with multiple sclerosis, where researchers observed changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota. They reported their findings in the study, “ intestinal microbiota in early pediatric multiple sclerosis: a study of cases and controls ” published in European Journal of Neurology .

In the third study, “ dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiota of patients with multiple sclerosis, with a striking depletion of species belonging to clostridia XIV bis and IV Clusters “, published in PLoS ONE analyzed the intestinal microbiota of the Japanese patients with relapsing-remitting MS and compared with the microbiota of healthy volunteers.

These researchers found significant differences between the two groups of samples in the abundance of 21 different species of bacteria, which belong mainly to the clostridia clusters XIV and IV bis Bacteroidetes . Because clostridial species, which are reduced in the intestinal microbiota of patients with MS did not overlap with species that are implicated in autoimmune diseases or allergies, the authors concluded that “many of the clostridial species associated with MS may be different of those generally associated with autoimmune diseases. ”

The fourth study, “ type I interferons and microbial tryptophan metabolites modulate the activity of astrocytes and inflammation of the central nervous system through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, ” carried conducted by an international team of researchers led by Dr. Francisco J. Quintana and published in the scientific journal Nature Medicine showed that people with MS had reduced levels of a receptor protein called aryl hydrocarbon (AHR) circulating in the blood.

AHR is involved in many biological processes, including inflammation. The researchers found that the intestinal microbiota play a role in the transformation of tryptophan, and the amino acid found in food, in AHR agonists that act on the nervous system cells called astrocytes and limit central nervous system inflammation. Low levels of AHR in patients with multiple sclerosis can explain how microbial dysbiosis may be the cause of the disease.

Together, these results suggest that intestinal microbiota targeted treatments can help people with multiple sclerosis. However, research in this area is in its infancy and there are currently no such treatments available.

“maintenance of the early life of a normal microbiome, could play a role in preventing disease, although it is unclear how to accomplish this in an effective and sustainable manner,” said Dr. Dean Wingerchuk, professor of neurology and director of the Division of MS and autoimmune neurology at the Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona.

“drugs Gut-bacteria based – or Brugs – may be available in the near future to restore normal in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis intestinal flora”, Mangalam

said

intestinal microbiota. play an important role in helping to digest and get energy from food as well as help in the development of a healthy immune system. microbial dysbiosis is involved in many diseases, from diabetes to rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease with colorectal cancer.

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